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silt fence

Applications and Effective Use

Silt fence is commonly used to contain sediment on active jobsites.

It should be installed anywhere sediment can flow off the site, and is designed to intercept and retain sediment in disturbed areas.

Silt fence should never be used in concentrated flow areas.

The quality of available silt fence varies greatly. Key components to higher quality silt fence include post quality, post spacing and fabric quality.

For Installation, Inspection, Maintenance and Removal

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wattles

Applications and Effective Use

This technology can be used as an alternative to silt fence for perimeter protection. Many of these products are biodegradable.

The products can consist of agricultural straw or wood fiber. The filler material is stuffed into a netting or tube structure. Typically the products range from 8” to 20” in diameter, but other sizes are available.

These are very versatile sediment control tools, and can also be used as ditch checks in concentrated flow areas, for storm water inlet protection, and for temporary diversions.

Often used along contours, these lightweight products can be used in successive rows to slow down sheet flow and collect sediment on long slopes.

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compost sock

Applications and Effective Use

Compost socks offer another alternative to silt fence for perimeter protection. Both degradeable and non-degradeable socks are available.

The products consist of a filter sock filled with a filter media, often consisting of composted wood chips and fibers. The filler material is then stuffed into a netting or tube structure. The composted filler material has proven effective on sites where nutrient and pollutant removal are important considerations. Typically the products range from 8” to 20” in diameter, but other sizes are available.

These are very versatile sediment control tools, and can be used as ditch checks in concentrated flow areas, and also for storm water inlet protection and for temporary diversions.

Often used along contours, they can be used in successive rows to slow down sheet flow and collect sediment on long slopes.

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compost berms

Applications and Effective Use

This practice utilizes either shredded mulch or compost. They provide a perimeter protection option to silt fence, wattles and socks.

Can be effectively used on small sites where space is limited.

This treatment should be used only in relatively flat areas.

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check dams

Applications and Effective Use

Check dams are designed to slow down and collect sediment in high flow areas, such as roadside ditches and drainage swales.

Manufactured ditch checks or wattles and socks can be effectively used for such applications. Temporary rock check dams can also be used. Hay bales and silt fence should never be used as check dams in high flow areas.

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silt curtain

Applications and Effective Use

Both silt curtains and water inflated dams are used when construction activities are either directly in-stream or adjacent to waterways or other water bodies.

Silt Curtains isolate in-stream construction areas where water depth is four inches or more.

Water inflated dams are very large water inflated tubes and are used in waterways where heavy construction is taking place.

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inlet protection

Applications and Effective Use

The most effective devices remove sediment from stormwater runoff, preventing clogging of drainage systems.

Both internal and external devices can be used, either separately or in combination.

Manufactured internal and external devices are most often sized to match up with the specific casting or inlet type and dimensions.

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stabilized entrance

Applications and Effective Use

Properly designed construction entrances limit or define entrances and exits to sites, with a goal of minimizing vehicle tracking onto adjacent roadways.

Site conditions vary widely. Soil types and traffic volume are key factors in appropriate design.

Typical solutions include a geosynthetic fabric layer installed under a layer of aggregate. For larger sites, shaker grates and tire washing devices can also be used.

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dust control

Applications and Effective Use

Dust control is particularly important when dust generating activities occur near populated areas. Gravel pits and other areas where soils are stockpiled are obvious applications for dust control measures. Dust can also be a byproduct of major grading activities. Other construction related activities, such as concrete cutting, can result in serious dust generation problems. When these factors are combined with high wind velocities, appropriate dust control measures take on critical importance.

Airborne dust can create both safety and health hazards, making effective dust control an essential best management practice. Soils vary greatly in texture and density. Sandy soils, for example, dry out very quickly, making them very vulnerable to wind generated erosion.

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surface protection

Applications and Effective Use

Portable mat systems are used for surface protection in high traffic construction zones. Lighter weight panels, sometimes made of polypropylene, are available to protect turf from damage caused by construction equipment.

Much heavier products are also available to protect access roads over soft ground, for emergency site access, or to construct oil drilling platforms.

This technology was developed as an alternative to well established solutions such as plywood and cut timber mats. The products are significantly lighter, last longer, are much more reusable, and are more portable than traditional systems.

For Installation, Inspection, Maintenance and Removal

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dewatering control

Applications and Effective Use

Dewatering is commonly used when working below grade, on bridge foundations, culvert installations, around retaining walls, and in a host of other applications.

This practice also is used during the maintenance of sediment basins.

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pond skimmers

Applications and Effective Use

Pond skimmers are often used on active construction sites to drain the cleanest water from sediment basins. These devices are designed to remove the water just below the pond surface. Removing water just below the surface helps prevent clogging caused by floating surface debris, while at the same time, avoids pulling more sediment laden water from deep below the high water mark.

Manufactured pond skimmers are available with differing sizes and openings to make certain that pond drawdown rates are in compliance with site specific requirements and in compliance with specific erosion control plans.

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sediment basin

Applications and Effective Use

Sediment basins are sediment control devices constructed with an engineered outlet, formed by embankment or excavation to intercept sediment-laden runoff and hold the sediment.

Temporary sediment basins are used in areas of concentrated flow or near points of off-site discharge on active construction sites.

Sediment basins can be located near entrances when exit wash stations are utilized.

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slope drain

Applications and Effective Use

Temporary slope drains convey stormwater flows down the length of exposed slopes. Sometimes called pipe slope drains, they are designed to convey runoff while preventing erosion on both slopes and at the base of slopes. Rugged, flexible corrugated polyethylene pipe is often employed for such applications. All joints should be watertight and flared end sections should be used at the inlet.

For shorter and flatter slopes, polyethylene lined swales can be employed.

This measure, usually used for less than two years, can be removed once slope stabilization is complete.

For Installation, Inspection, Maintenance and Removal

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diversions

Applications and Effective Use

Temporary diversions are berms or channels constructed across slopes to collect and divert stormwater runoff.

Diversions are useful on construction sites where temporary surface water runoff controls are needed.

Earth berms can be placed to form temporary diversions, but other techniques can be used also. Manufactured ditch checks can be configured to form diversions, as can many other products depending on site requirements.

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vegetated buffer

Applications and Effective Use

Vegetative buffers utilize existing vegetation to slow and filter runoff and collect sediment. They are sometimes referred to as filter or buffer strips. Buffer strips can assist in protecting adjacent property, roadways and waterways.

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stockpile

Applications and Effective Use

Stockpile protection prevents soil from eroding from storage areas and migrating onto adjacent property and waterways.

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Sediment, by definition, is the movement of matter by some natural process. For purposes of this manual, we are dealing with soil movement as a result of water movement or wind. Sediment Control measures help prevent sediment from entering adjacent property, drainage structures, waterways and roadways.


StormWater Field Guide