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seed bed

Applications and Effective Use

Proper seed bed preparation is critical to success. First of all, a simple soil test is of vital importance. The test results will dictate the soil amendments needed to produce the highest quality turf possible. Choosing the correct seed mixture is also very important. For example, heavily used athletic fields require seed mixtures that are very different from those used on residential lawns.

Drainage patterns must be incorporated into final grading. Climate considerations also must be considered. Sunny and shady areas have different seed requirements. Sites subject to high prevailing winds can also significantly impact seed mixture choices.

Careful consideration must be given to the placement of irrigation and subsurface drainage systems.

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slope tracking

Applications and Effective Use

Slope tracking is a simple and inexpensive practice, utilizing tracked equipment, that can help to significantly slow down erosion in newly excavated sloping areas.

By slowing down flows on sloping areas, tracking can reduce sediment loss and resulting deposition at the base of slopes. As velocities are slowed down, infiltration is increased.

Slope tracking is generally a short-term solution used in conjunction with mulching, seeding, erosion control blankets or other best management practices.

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mulching

Applications and Effective Use

Mulching is a time proven and effective method for protecting exposed soils and promoting the establishment of vegetation.

Commonly used mulch materials include straw, wood fiber and grass clippings. Mulching assists with vegetative growth by holding seed and soil in place, retaining moisture, protecting plant roots, and by holding soil temperatures at levels conducive to plant growth. By accelerating seed germination, mulches speed up desired plant growth and help minimize the impact of competing weeds.

Mulch based products such as hydromulches and erosion control blankets further underscore the positive attributes of mulch application.

Often used along contours, they can be used in successive rows to slow down sheet flow and collect sediment on long slopes.

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seeding

Applications and Effective Use

Seeding begins the process of healthy vegetation establishment. Ultimately, the most effective erosion and sediment control is achieved by a strong stand of vegetation.

Temporary seeding is sometimes employed to stabilize areas under construction. Permanent seeding provides long-term stabilization of exposed soils.

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Sod

sod

Applications and Effective Use

Sod provides immediate vegetation and erosion control. It is often installed on commercial sites or in residential developments where aesthetics are an important consideration.

Pinning or staking is often required in concentrated flow areas or slopes. Test the soil that will form the sod bed. Add fertilizer or soil amendments as needed.

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blankets

Applications and Effective Use

Erosion control blankets are temporary manufactured products designed to protect seeded areas during the vegetative process. They are designed to be installed after seed bed preparation is complete. As vegetation becomes established, the blankets gradually biodegrade.

Blankets are manufactured with an evenly distributed mulch layer fastened with stitching to a netting structure. Mulch materials typically used in blanket manufacturing include straw, wood fiber and coconut fiber.

The netting and fibers used in blanket manufacturing are matched to product longevity and specific jobsite requirements. Erosion control blankets are available with product longevity ranging from 45 days to three years.

Erosion control blankets are typically used on slopes or in low velocity waterways.

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coir fiber log mats

Applications and Effective Use

Coir fiber logs are composed of coconut fiber, and are most often used to stabilize shorelines and provide long-term erosion protection during vegetation establishment. Depending upon their density, coir fiber logs can provide stabilization for as long as five to seven years. The coir fiber is encased by a netting structure. Netting types vary, and are dictated by site conditions.

Coir logs sometimes are pre-drilled and then plugged with vegetation.

Typically coir fiber logs are available in diameters ranging from eight to 20 inches.

Coir fiber mats are often used in sloping areas adjacent to coir fiber log installations, and provide longterm soil protection as vegetation becomes established.

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reinforcement mats

Applications and Effective Use

Turf reinforcement mats (TRMs) are designed to provide permanent reinforcement to the root and stem structure of vegetation.

Vegetated TRMs have been evaluated in independent testing facilities and have proven to be very effective in providing an alternative to hard armor systems in high flow channels, along shorelines, and on steep slopes.

While TRMs will not replace all riprap and other hard armor systems, they do provide a vegetative alternative to these methods in many cases.

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bioengineering

Applications and Effective Use

Bioengineering uses living or dead plant materials to provide erosion control, structural support and flow mitigation. Such installations provide stability while promoting the establishment of permanent vegetation. Soil bioengineering techniques are commonly used along shorelines, but can also be used anywhere that soft armoring methods are required.

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porous pavement systems

Applications and Effective Use

Porous pavement systems provide alternatives to concrete and asphalt paving in high traffic areas. These products are designed to withstand heavy traffic while allowing significant infiltration. Porous pavement systems are available that can be vegetated or filled with stone. These permeable surfaces can significantly reduce runoff and reduce pressure on stormwater conveyance and storage systems.

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scour protection mats

Applications and Effective Use

Scour protection mats are used in high water flow energy areas to reinforce vegetation and protect against soil loss. Typical applications include culvert outfalls in high flow channels, and along shorelines subject to erosion caused by wind driven wave action.

The material used to manufacture these mat systems is typically polypropylene or some other synthetic plastic material. The systems provide openings to allow vegetation to grow through, while at the same time providing a rigid surface to accelerate flow and minimize damage to vegetative root systems.

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vegetated retaining wall

Applications and Effective Use

Vegetated retaining walls provide an attractive alternative to modular concrete block systems, poured concrete and other non-vegetated systems. Engineered like all wall systems, vegetated walls are designed with careful consideration of soil stability, drainage and long-term performance.

When site conditions require a vertical or near vertical wall, vegetated walls provide an attractive alternative to traditional walls systems. Vegetated walls provide drainage through the wall surface itself, significantly helping reduce hydrostatic pressure.

A wide variety of vegetation types can be used depending on job specific requirements.

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hydromulch

Applications and Effective Use

Hydraulic mulches are machine applied mixtures of water and mulch materials. Seed can also be added to such mixes. In some cases special additives are included to assist with adhesion to the soil surface.

Such products provide a cost effective alternative to traditional seeding methods. Most commonly hydromulches are used to stabilize moderate to steep slopes and other areas where seed bed protection is desired. Hydromulches provide an alternative to other surface treatments such as sod or erosion control blankets.

Hydromulches should not be used in concentrated flow areas.

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tackifiers

Applications and Effective Use

Tackifiers are additives blended with hydromulches, helping to bind the material and help with adhesion to soil surfaces. Tackifiers can also assist with more even particle distribution and moisture retention.

There are many tackifiers on the market, with guar gum and polymers among the most commonly used.

Some tackifiers lose effectiveness after one or two rain events. Others will perform well for significantly longer periods.

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Erosion, by definition, is the movement or breaking down of land caused by weather, water, or humans. For purposes of this manual, we are dealing with the movement of land and soil caused by weather, water, or humans. Erosion Control measures help prevent erosion from occurring.


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